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What does “system” mean? What is different from the program?


Among the software used in business, there are many software and applications called “○○ systems” such as business management systems and payroll systems.
What is the meaning of the “system” that you casually use in this work? There are many cases where even an engineer who is familiar with IT does not know the exact meaning as much as the IT terminology used daily. This time, we will introduce in detail the basic information and types of “systems”
for corporate personnel who are new to IT. It is not a dream to introduce a system that suits the business and to improve the work efficiency and profits of the company.


table of contents

  • 1. What is a system?
  • 2. What kind of system is there?
  • 3. What are the benefits of introducing a system into your business?
  • 4. What is the difference between a system and a program?
  • 5. How is system development done?

What is a system?

What is a system?
words meaning
system Organization, system, mechanism, mechanism
sub-system Elements that make up a part of the system
mechanism Mechanical equipment, gimmicks
structure Building or structure of a business or company
unit Each element that makes up the whole

The word system is used literally to refer to “organization” and “system”, as well as “mechanism” and “mechanism”. A system divided into smaller units is also called a “subsystem”, and there are many words that have similar meanings as shown in the above figure. In companies and businesses, systems are often used to mean “a mechanism for doing XX.”

For example, many IT terms bear the name of a system, such as a business system for “a mechanism used during business” and a WEB system for “a mechanism used on the Internet”. The following describes the types of systems that are mainly used in business and development work.


What kind of system is there?

System type
type Overview
Time and attendance system A system responsible for employee attendance management
Personnel payroll system A system that calculates employee salaries according to the type of employment
Sales management system A system for managing product sales and inventory
Delivery management system A system that manages the process from shipping to completion of delivery
Sales support system A system with functions to support sales
Business System The general system used in business
core system A system that is necessary for doing business
Information system A system aimed at supporting communication and decision making

The main systems used in business and development work are as shown in the above figure. Most of the systems are named “○○ system” to refer to their functions and features. Depending on the system, there are cases where it corresponds to multiple types, but if you understand the functions of each type, it will be easier to introduce the system required by the company.


● Time and attendance management system

The attendance management system is a system responsible for employee attendance management. It has the role of aggregating the timestamps of employees to determine the number of working hours and the number of late arrivals in a month, managing the number of paid days, and supporting general affairs and personnel work. In the present age when the word “work style reform” has become widespread, the employment form differs greatly for each worker, so management tends to be complicated. In such a case, an attendance management system that can manage the attendance status of employees collectively will come in handy.


● Personnel salary system

The personnel salary system calculates employee salaries by taking into account working hours, working days, and job title allowances. It has the feature that you can change the basic salary of employees according to the assessment contents, calculate the face value of bonuses, and easily calculate and manage salaries. In some cases, this personnel payroll system is installed as one of the functions of the attendance management system mentioned above.


● Sales management system

With the sales management system, you can manage sales and inventory of products. A sales management system is indispensable for companies that operate e-commerce sites and physical stores. By referring to the data, it is also possible to identify stores and popular products that are selling well and use them for business planning and new product development. Some sales management systems have functions that help streamline operations, such as “automatically place an order when the number of items in stock falls below a certain number.”


● Delivery management system

The system that manages the process from the shipment of the package to the completion of delivery is called the delivery management system. For the transportation industry, it is a system that can be said to be a lifeline, and it is possible to manage a huge number of deliveries collectively. This delivery management system is often linked to the official site of the delivery company. By entering the order number, the user can see at a glance “where is the ordered item”.


● Sales support system

A sales support system is a system that has functions to support sales. You can manage customer information, progress management of projects, business card management, etc. Since some companies often sell to a huge number of companies, a sales support system that can manage information for each customer is indispensable.


● Business system

As the name implies, a business system is a term that refers to a “system used in business.” The sales management system and sales support system mentioned above apply. Business systems are released by many system companies, but some companies often develop original business systems according to the business content.


● Core system

The core system, like the business system, also refers to the “system used in business.” However, there is a difference that the business system is a “system that is useful for doing business”, while the core system is “a system that is necessary for business”. For example, a retail sales management system or a transportation delivery management system might be the case. By the way, a system that combines multiple core systems is sometimes called ERP (Integrated Enterprise Resource Planning).


● Information system

An information system is a system that aims to support communication and decision-making. Specifically, this includes email software, office software, groupware, and in-house SNS. However, both the information system and the core system are still “used for business”. Therefore, “systems used in business” are sometimes collectively referred to as business systems.


What are the benefits of introducing a system into your business?

As mentioned above, the feature is that the applications and functions differ greatly depending on the system. When a system is introduced in business, the “mechanism” makes it easier to proceed with business efficiently, which contributes to the improvement of business efficiency and reduction of human costs. Even if you introduce a system that is not related to your business, you will not receive any benefits, so it is ideal to understand “what you can do” for each system.

On the other hand, keep in mind that introducing a system into your business will have some disadvantages. For example, no matter what kind of system, if the system stops working due to a failure or error, it will cause a big hindrance to business. In the unlikely event that a “system that is indispensable for business” such as a core system stops, the business itself cannot be continued. In some cases, it will adversely affect the management and credibility of the company.

Therefore, when introducing a system, it is necessary to consider the operation and maintenance of the system. Keep in mind that you should perform regular maintenance to keep your system in good working order.


What is the difference between a system and a program?

Here, I will briefly explain the difference between a system and a “program” that is often confused. As introduced in the basic information section, the system is used to refer to the “mechanism itself”, while the program is used to refer to the “command to the computer”. Programs (programming) are required when creating business systems and core systems.

Both systems and programs are often used in development work, so it’s a good idea to remember the differences. The specific procedure for system development is introduced below.


How is system development done?

A company that is responsible for system sales and development is called a “system development company.” Even in the case where the released system does not have the optimum system for business, it is possible to develop the original system by placing an order with the system development company. System development will proceed in the steps shown in the figure.


The requirement definition here is the work of summarizing the functions that you want to install in the system. Starting with this “requirement definition”, development progresses to “external design” that determines the external elements of the system, “internal design” that performs programming, and “unit test” that confirms the operation of each part of the program. Finally, the system is released after testing in a production environment.

However, system development uses waterfall type and agile type development methods, and the procedure and contents may differ depending on the method. More detailed information is also posted on the following page, so please refer to it if you are a company person who wants to know the development procedure.

What is system development? Introducing the procedure and precautions when requesting


As a preliminary step to this procedure, it is necessary to set the purpose of “I want to make such a system!”. For example, it is a mechanism to create requirements definition based on the purpose such as “I want a sales support system that suits my business” and “I need a delivery management system that can be operated with a smartphone”.

If you are a person in charge of a company who wants to introduce a system to your business, it is a good idea to develop the system by referring to the procedure mentioned above. If you have no in-house development environment or no employees, you can use the matching service of the system company. If it is a matching service, achievements and strengths are posted for each company, so you can request the most suitable company according to your purpose. If you are considering outsourcing system development, why not use ” Order Navi “, a matching service specialized for system companies.

If you ever want to know about similar things, check out the Facebook page Maga Techs



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